Palaeoloxodon: Little and Large

An artists reconstruction of Palaeoloxodon namidicus, aka; the Asian Straight Tusked Elephant
Image Credit: Baperookamo,

“Look, Look! It’s a Straight Tusked Elephant! No one at home will believe this!”

I may have adapted that quote from The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers, but I like to think that Samwise Gamgee’s quote about the gargantuan Oliphant’s (or Mûmakil as they were also known) could apply to what members of our own species thought when they ventured into the depths of Central/Southeast Asia and encountered a Straight Tusked Elephant far greater and mightier than anything they had ever seen before. Meanwhile, far away on a Mediterranean island, there were Straight Tusked Elephant species far, far smaller than could ever have been imagined. Both would’ve been wonders of their respective habitats. But what exactly were Straight Tusked Elephants? And how could there be both so small and so large?

Straight Tusked Elephants were part of a Mammalian order known as the “Proboscideans”, a group of (mostly) large mammals that are represented today by African Bush Elephants, African Forest Elephants and Asian Elephants. I think everyone reading this piece will know what an Elephant looks like; a huge, quadrupedal mammal with a dexterous trunk, fearsome tusks and a vegetation diet (including grasses, leaves and woody material). But this family has a long history stretching back roughly 60 million years, and up until relatively recently it included now extinct members such as Mammoths, Mastodons and Gomphotheres. All Straight Tusked Elephants were part of the Elephant family within the Proboscidean order, rather than the Mammoth or Mastodon families, with all Straight Tusked Elephants united under the genus; Palaeoloxodon (meaning “old oblique-sided tooth”). Despite their superficially similar appearance Palaeoloxodon differed anatomically from modern elephants in a few ways. For one, they had a large crest of bone that ran across and around their foreheads like a headband. This crest provided anchoring points for large muscles that supported their heavy heads. Interestingly, these crests were not proportionally the same. A study conducted by Larramendi et. al. and published in 2020 has shown that different species and subspecies of Straight Tusked Elephants can be distinguished by the proportional size of this bony crest. Just like Mammoths, Straight Tusked Elephants are thought to have behaved similarly to Modern Elephants, right down to females and juveniles living together in herds led by a matriarch. We have evidence for this from a site in Huelva in Southwest Spain, where fossilized tracks belonging to juvenile and young adult Straight Tusked Elephants have been found together. Interestingly Neanderthal tracks are also found at this site, showing that our own species weren’t the only humans to encounter these animals! Further Neanderthal/Palaeoloxodon associations come from tools made from Palaeoloxodon bone that were discovered at Castel di Guido, a site near Rome, Italy. The site dates to 400,000 years ago; around the time when Neanderthals were living in Southern Europe, so it reasonable to think that Neanderthal hands made these tools. It is unknown whether the Neanderthals got the bones from hunting the Straight Tusked Elephants, or whether they scavenged them from a carcass, but Straight Tusked Elephants were certainly a key facet of these Neanderthals lives.

Footprints made by Straight Tusked Elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) calves from Huelva in South-West Spain. These incredible trace fossils literally preserve their baby steps!
Image Credit: Carvalho et al. 2021,

As already mentioned, there wasn’t just one Straight Tusked Elephant. Instead, there were a grand total of seven species. The first species that we know of from the fossil record, and the first that human species encountered, was Palaeoloxodon recki, which lived roughly 3.5-1 million years ago during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene period and stood roughly 4.27 metres tall at the shoulder. This species was THE main Elephant species during its time, and was the precursor of all other Palaeoloxodon species, evolving as they spread out of Africa during migration events. Heading into Eurasia our ancestors would’ve seen the European Straight Tusked Elephant; Palaeoloxodon antiquus. This species lived across Europe and Asia, reaching as far west as the UK during the interglacial periods. These were periods of time during the Ice Age when the ice temporarily retreated, and temperatures were warmer on average. We are currently in an interglacial period right now; the Ice Age isn’t over yet! These Eurasian species of Palaeoloxodon exhibit an interesting change from their African ancestors. Palaeoloxodon recki was predominantly a grazer. However, Palaeoloxodons in Eurasia switched to a browsing diet. This switch is thought to have occurred to avoid competition with Eurasia’s other resident trunked, tusked proboscideans, the Mammoths. This difference in diet allowed Straight Tusked Elephants and Mammoths to co-exist and exploit different environmental niches. Mammoths preferred the colder grasslands of the great Mammoth steppe, whilst Straight Tusked Elephants frequented the warmer open woodlands. In the UK, Straight Tusked Elephant fossils have been found in places such as Sussex and Cambridgeshire, and they would have even roamed what’s now London! (alongside Hippos, Narrow nosed Rhinos, Lions, Terrapins and more). Fossils dating from this time have been found beneath Trafalgar Square! But how did these warm weather animals get here? At different times during the Ice Age there was a land bridge connecting the UK and rest of Western Europe. This included a land mass known as “Doggerland”, which is now submerged under the North Sea. This, combined with warmer temperatures and a riverine, open woodland habitat, meant that animals now considered to be native to sub-tropical Africa lived freely in Britain. These “African” animals co-existed with animals that still exist in smaller numbers in Europe today, such as Wolves, Deer, Bison and Bears. Other human species also lived in this world, such as Homo Heidelbergensis, and from about 400,000 years ago, the Neanderthals. So, in this very recent geological past, the UK was once an extremely biodiverse landscape, with Straight Tusked Elephants being its mightiest residents.

A map showing the distribution of the European Straight Tusked Elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus). The dots represents sites where their fossils have been found.
Image Credit: DagdaMor,

As Homo sapiens migrated into Europe, they also spread further east into Asia. As they reached India, China and Southeast Asia they would’ve encountered the spectacular Asian Straight Tusked Elephant, Palaeoloxodon namidicus. Now, Palaeoloxodon species had been big before, but Palaeoloxodon namidicus was in a different league altogether. Estimates have suggested that it could have attained a mighty 4.5-5 metres at the shoulder and weighed between 14 and 22 tons! This makes it not only the largest Palaeoloxodon, but possibly the largest animal to have walked the planet since the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs! No other land mammal has matched it (though the older, hornless, giraffe like rhino Paraceratherium came close). This sheer size along with herding behavior (in females and adolescents) and likely bad temperament (especially during “musth”, which is when bull elephants are in a highly aggressive state due to looking to fight other males for the right to mate) would’ve protected it from any hunter. Even humans, the planets most destructive predators with our big pointy sticks and intelligence, might’ve thought better than to take on a full-grown adult. P.namidicus’ sheer size would’ve made them the most dangerous animal that our species has ever encountered. This is really something considering the other dangerous animals we’ve encountered throughout our history, such as Short Faced Bears, huge Monitor Lizards, Sabre-Tooth Cats, Giant Ground Sloths and more (not to mention modern day animals such as Lions, Sharks, Hippos, Buffalos, Crocodiles and, well, other Elephants!). P.namidicus is thought to have gone extinct roughly 22,000, years ago. However, if a controversial study published by Li et. al. in 2012, which studied ancient man-made Elephant statues with weird, twin lipped trunks, and preserved teeth is to be believed (and it really needs to be taken with a grain of salt), they or a similar species may have existed in Northern China as recently as 3,000 years ago! It really was the closest thing to the Mûmakil of Tolkein’s epic!

A size comparison between a human, Palaeoloxodon namidicus (right) and Paraceratherium (left). The material we have for Palaeoloxodon namidicus is fragmentary (only the partial femur shown in its silhouette) but upper size estimations from these indicate that it may have been the largest ever land mammal.
Image Credit: Larramendi, A. 2015,

Meanwhile on the other side of the Eurasian landmass, tucked away within the Mediterranean, we had Straight Tusked Elephants that were an awful lot smaller, (and a lot less dangerous), than the titans that roamed Asia. On the Mediterranean islands of Malta, Cyprus, Crete, Sicily and more, there lived two dwarf species of Straight Tusked Elephant: Palaeoloxodon falconeri and Palaeoloxodon cypriotes. P.cypriotes was about as tall as a person, (which is small enough for an Elephant), however P.falconeri was even smaller, only as big as a sheep! The reason these Straight Tusked Elephants were so small was due to their island homes. On islands, there is a trend for evolution to favour the smaller individuals within large species as they are better adapted to cope with the lack of food and living space. Smaller animals need less food; therefore, they are more likely to survive, reproduce and pass on their diminutive size to their offspring. So, over thousands to millions of years, the ancestors of these dwarf elephants (most likely a population of Palaeoloxodon antiquus that had made their way to the islands when sea levels were lower) steadily shrunk and became genetically different enough to become a new species. Despite their small size these Straight Tusked Elephants shared similar behaviors with their larger cousins, browsing on the island’s vegetation, females and young living in herds and bulls roaming alone. But while these Palaeoloxodon were smaller, some other island residents grew larger. This can create some very amusing scenarios. For example, alongside the dwarf elephants on Malta and Sicily there was also a species of giant swan (Cygnus falconeri) that grew to a whopping 2 metres long from bill to tail (reaching an average person’s shoulder!), had a wingspan of 3 metres and weighed 26 kilograms. This meant that it was taller than P.falconeri! On Malta, the Swans dwarfed the Elephants!

A skeleton of a Dwarf Sicilian Elephant (Palaeoloxodon falconeri). It has been suggested by some that the bones of Elephants found within the Mediterranean and in Southern Europe may have partially inspired the myths of Cyclops. Their skulls, as seen in this skeleton, do have a hole in the middle that could be mistaken for a single large eye socket. In life it was the nasal cavity at the base of the trunk.
Image Credit: James St. John,

The Straight Tusked Elephant lineage was incredibly successful, spanning across Africa and Eurasia, from the UK and Spain to Japan (where the species Palaeoloxodon naumanni lived). They evolved varying body sizes, diets and appearances as a response to the environments they found themselves in. This enabled them to cope with whatever they encountered. That is; as long as it wasn’t too cold and there was plenty of their preferred open woodland. However, despite this, their preferences would contribute to their end. The last of the lineage would go extinct roughly 21,000 years ago, near to the end of the last ice age. It is thought (like a lot of other megafauna) that their extinction was linked to dramatic climate changes and human hunting. The changing climate reduced the preferred forested habitats of these Elephants in favour of less suitable expansive dry grasslands. Meanwhile those efficient, ruthless humans may have put further pressure on populations, with some sites in Southern and Central Europe showing human butchering of Straight Tusked Elephants. Young, old and injured Elephants would’ve been most at risk, and while a full grown P.namidicus might have been safe, other Straight Tusked Elephants may not have had the same luxury.

It’s a shame that they never made it into recorded history. Palaeloxodon falconeri’s bizarrely small size would’ve made it an internet sensation, while a full grown Palaeoloxodon namidicus would’ve made for an incredible war elephant!

References/Further Reading

Larramendi et. al. 2020. Study that looked traced the evolution of Palaeoloxodon skulls, and what this tells us about the different Straight Tusked Elephant species.

Asier Larramendi, Hanwen Zhang, Maria Rita Palombo, Marco P. Ferretti, The evolution of Palaeoloxodon skull structure: Disentangling phylogenetic, sexually dimorphic, ontogenetic, and allometric morphological signals, Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 229, 2020, 106090, ISSN 0277-3791,

An article written by Josh Davis and published on the Natural History Museum website about Palaeoloxodon and the study by Larramendi et. al. on on the variation of their headband like bony crests.

Davis, Josh “Weird skulls of straight-tusked elephants reveal just how many species there were”, Natural History Museum,, 18th February, 2020,

Neto de Carvalho et. al. 2021 paper describing the fossilized trackways at Huelva, which included the tracks of young and young adult Palaeoloxodon, Neanderthals and other animals

Neto de Carvalho, C., Belaústegui, Z., Toscano, A. et al. First tracks of newborn straight-tusked elephants (Palaeoloxodon antiquus). Sci Rep 11, 17311 (2021).

Villa et. al. 2021 paper studying the Palaeoloxodon bone tools, likely made by Neanderthals, from Castel di Guido in Italy

Villa P, Boschian G, Pollarolo L, Saccà D, Marra F, et al. (2021) Elephant bones for the Middle Pleistocene toolmaker. PLOS ONE 16(8): e0256090.

Paleo Safaris: Ice Age Australia

Queensland, Australia, 50,000 years ago

The last Ice Age is usually associated with cold, frozen landscapes with Mammoths, Sabre Toothed Cats, Woolly Rhinos and Ground Sloths dominating the landscape. However in some places on earth these conditions and animals weren’t present at all. For an example of this look no further than Australia. Instead of colder temperatures, the Ice Age caused Australia to become drier in glacial periods and wetter in interglacials. During interglacial periods conditions were mild enough to allow for more extensive temperate forests and dry grassland to grow and encircle the vast central desert. Just like today, Australia was home to a host of weird and unusual animal species exclusive to the continent. For example there were (and still are) not many placental mammals; the large phylum that encompasses the majority of all mammal families elsewhere in the world, from cats, to whales, to cows and to humans. Instead a completely different type of mammal is dominant here. They are the marsupials. Their main distinguishing trait is their young being born very early in development and then spending the rest of the development cycle maturing in an external skin pouch instead of internally in a placental linked womb. If we journey back 50,000 years we find that Australia’s signature marsupials can still be spotted; Kangaroos leap across the arid land, Koalas snooze in the afternoon sun and Wombats lumber along the forest undergrowth. However among these animals also live a large cast of unfamiliar Australian fauna.

It’s late April, and on the arid plains of Queensland, Central Australia one marsupial munches on the dry grass in the dead of night. It’s bigger than any Australian animal alive today, about the same size as a Rhino but is a close relative of the Wombat. This is Diprotodon; at 3 metres long, 1.8 metres tall and roughly 2.8 tonnes it is the largest marsupial that has ever lived. Diprotodon usually live in big herds that seasonally migrate across the Australian outback, but this young male has become separated from the rest of the herd. He picks up the sound of a disturbance in the bush and notices something moving quickly through it. He looks up towards the sound and readies himself for an attack! The animal emerges! But to the Diprotodons relief it’s not what it was fearing. Instead it is a female Thylacine, on the hunt for prey that is more her size. Thylacines are only a metre long and weigh 17 kilos (smaller than a medium-sized dog) and as such usually stay out the way of the larger animals. Once he realises that the Thylacine is no threat the big Diprotodon goes back to munching on the surrounding grass. In fact the female Thylacine that is more relieved that there was no escalation in this encounter. Getting trampled by the rhino sized marsupial would have been fatal not only to her, but to her unborn baby.

File:Diprotodon optatum.jpg
Diprotodon. The largest Marsupial to ever exist!
Image Credit: Nobu Tamura,

By late May when we next see her, the female Thylacine has now officially become a mother! Within the safety of her pouch pokes out the head of her joey. Sadly he is the only survivor of an original litter of four. Two of his siblings were stillborn and the other couldn’t reach the pouch and perished in the harsh Australian environment. He is not yet strong enough to leave it yet and is still totally dependent on milk he gets from mammary glands within the pouch. While she’s carrying around this new arrival, the female Thylacine will be keen to take any free meal she can find. She is in luck as the distinctive smell of carrion wafts through the wind. Using her keen sense of smell she tracks the scent towards its source; a Diprotodon that has succumbed to old age and the battering heat of the Australian sun. However she is not the only predator drawn to the carcass. To her left emerges a crocodile! But there is no river or lake for miles around. How can this be?! This is no ordinary crocodile! This is a Quinkana. A 6 metre long crocodilian who, unlike its water loving relatives, is almost entirely terrestrial with legs that are located more underneath its body to allow it to chase down prey. Quinkana is another animal that dwarfs the Thylacine. However she is more nimble, and if she’s careful she can sneak up to the carcass and steal a mouthful or two before the Quinkana notices. She starts to stealthily venture towards the other side of the carcass as the Quinkana tears into it. But then she hears a sharp hiss from the thicket! She flees the scene as another giant reptile enters stage right! Megalania. A 7 metre long monitor lizard, roughly twice the size of a Komodo Dragon! It too has smelt the carcass and unlike the Thylacine it has the size and power to potentially muscle the Quinkana off the carcass. The Megalania grabs the hind leg of the carcass and attempts to drag it away. But the Quinkana isn’t going to let go easily and proceeds to grab onto the carcasses’ neck. A massive tug of war ensues between the two reptiles, one that could potentially escalate further! Understandably the Thylacine isn’t willing to stick around to find out the result and with the two giant predators all over the carcass there is no chance of her stealing anything now. Frustrated, she is forced to move on.

File:Quinkana fortirostrum.JPG
Quinkana. One of the many large predators our Thylacine family has to avoid!
Image Credit: Mr Fink,

It is now late November and the baby Thylacine has finally left the safety of the pouch and is taking his first independent steps into a wider world. The Australian summer is now in full swing. Conditions are much hotter and drier, and all animals are feeling the strain. One such animal is Genyornis. Genyornis is a flightless bird that is part of the ratite family; the same family that contains the Ostrich of Africa and another Australian bird called the Emu. However Genyornis is a giant, and at 2 metres tall it is about 6 times bigger than a regular Emu. Genyornis is a vegetarian, feeding on leaves and seeds, and it is this that draws it close to a nearby tree. The tree also provides much needed shade and allows the Genyornis some respite from the hot sun. But it is not as safe as it thinks it is. The Genyornis looks round, alerted by a sound coming from the nearby bush. But before the bird can even react a powerful marsupial slams into it and bites very hard into the Genyornis’ neck. It’s all over in just a few seconds. This predator is the largest Mammalian carnivore in Australia; a Thylacoleo. The Thylacoleo looks around, checking that no other large predator has caught wind of the fresh kill, then drags the big carcass up into the safety of the tree to consume at her leisure. Unbeknownst to her the female Thylacine and her joey have been awoken by the disturbance. Thylacines are nocturnal, meaning they operate mostly between Dusk and Dawn, and so the pair were taking the opportunity to have a daily siesta! The mother knows better than to linger around a full grown Thylacoleo and ushers her joey away to find a quieter place to nap. At first glance Thylacoleo looks similar to the big cats that occupy the rest of the world. However like Diprotodon this “Marsupial Lion” is actually another relative of the wombat. Thylacoleo is an incredible animal, perhaps the most unique mammalian carnivore to ever live. The bite that instantly ended the Genyornis’ life is the strongest pound for pound bite of any mammal ever! It’s even stronger than an African Lion despite Thylacoleo being nearly half its size! Like big cats Thylacoleo possesses large retractable claws and these, along with its dentition of large stabbing incisors and sharp shearing carnassials (i.e. molars) make this marsupial quite the formidable hunter. The Thylacine family definitely made the right choice in avoiding it!

File:Leon marsupial, Thylacoleo carnifex 3d restoration.jpg - Wikimedia  Commons
Thylacoleo. The most unique Mammalian carnivore to ever exist.
Image Credit: Jose Manuel Canete,,_Thylacoleo_carnifex_3d_restoration.jpg

Fast forward to early February and the end of the Australian summer is approaching. With each passing day the baby Thylacine grows stronger and more independent. He also isn’t the only youngster around anymore. Not far from the Thylacine family a group of Procoptodon (or “Short Faced Kangaroos) lie in the shade of the nearby trees. These giant members of the Kangaroo family grow up to 2 metres tall and weigh 230 kilograms. Despite this size, they are still capable of hopping and reaching great speeds as other kangaroo species are*. They’re also just as dangerous, a fact that two males are demonstrating by sparring together. The kicks from their strong legs can crack bones and result in serious internal bleeding. But in this session both males walk away scot free. The Procoptodon joeys are also sparring, copying the behaviour of the males. But for these youngsters this is more playfighting than real sparring! Life for our Thylacine family finally seems peaceful. But there’s a dangerous smell in the air. The smell of smoke. A fire has started in the east, and to the sides of the flames are the cause. Humans. Their flaming torches have lit the surrounding dry grass with the aim of driving the Procoptodon out into the open. However the fire has also engulfed all the other animals in the area and all around the flickering red and orange flames the Thylacine mother and child hear the terrified cries of animals engulfed by smoke and flames. The fire spreads panic and chaos all over the place and out of the nowhere the mother Thylacine is smacked into by another big animal. Both animals are dazed by the blow and the mother Thylacine looks up at the Thylacoleo, who has managed to shake off the blow and stagger to her feet. This is a nightmarish for the Thylacine and yet all she can think of is the safety of her joey somewhere in the fire. But the Thylacoleo could care less about the Thylacine right now and runs on past her. In shear panic the Thylacoleo had only accidently ran into the Thylacine while trying to escape! The mother Thylacine desperately calls out for her joey. One coughing bark; nothing. Another two barks; still nothing! The fear is absolutely overwhelming now and to her it truly feels like the end of her world. But then she hears a bark, one she recognises! It’s her joey, still alive! The pair run for their lives but no matter which way they turn the fire blocks their path. Running out of places to go there seems to be no escape as the fire surrounds them and starts to burn brighter and hotter….

File:Procoptodon BW.jpg - Wikimedia Commons
Procoptodon: The giant kangaroo targeted by the fire wielding humans!
Image Credit: Nobu Tamura,

Later that evening the fire finally dies down. The humans have long since moved on with their prizes. But in their wake lie the consequences of their actions. From black widow spiders, to wallabies, to Diprotodons and Procoptodons all manner of life has burnt to a crisp. Not even the mighty Megalania and Quinkana, those two reptiles vying for top predator supremacy, could escape the flames. As fierce as they were, they were ultimately no match for a species who could wield a superweapon like fire. Luckily our Thylacine family managed to survive the fire by seeking refuge in a large and deep burrow. Walking through the burned vegetation and past the bodies, the mother recognises a familiar face. It is the female Thylacoleo. Once a great threat to our Thylacine, the Thylacoleo lies motionless with smoke floating from her burnt skin like a blown out candle. The Thylacine regards her from as close as she has ever managed before. But this time there’s no response, and after a while the Thylacine and her child, as always, are forced to move on to survive. This tragedy is a sign of things to come for the great megafauna of Australia. Even 50,000 years ago species like the Thylacoleo are in decline and within 30,000 years nearly all of the spectacular animals we have encountered on this journey will have disappeared. While the humans’ efficient hunting strategies are a threat the herbivores of Australia are unprepared for, and one the carnivores can’t hope to match, they are not the main reason why the megafauna disappear. By comparing the extinction dates of the Australian megafauna with the arrival of humans it was found that they were actually able to co-exist together for nearly 20,000 years, a piece of information that doesn’t correlate with overhunting. Instead there is another danger, one more devastating than even the humans; the changing climate. Over time Australia becomes even drier and more arid. This results in habitat loss and without their habitat this Ice Age ecosystem will not be able to survive. As for the plucky Thylacines, they will manage to cling on for a while longer. However even they will eventually be unable to adapt to the new human world. After going extinct on mainland Australia 2,000 years ago they were reduced to a small population living exclusively on the island of Tasmania, leading to their more commonly known name of “The Tasmanian Tiger”. However the arrival of Europeans in Tasmania would put them under even greater pressure than before. Their habitat was destroyed to make way for farms, imported disease would strike them down and Europeans would kill them in the mistaken belief that they hunted their sheep and cattle. The last Thylacine, a male that’s often incorrectly thought to have been called Benjamin, passed away on the 7th of September 1936 in Beaumaris Zoo in Hobart Australia. Tragically it is thought that he was a victim of neglect, locked out of his shelter and left out in the bitter cold of the Australian night. It was a truly sad end to a species that was a remnant of a lost world.

pungulv – Store norske leksikon
The Thylacines. The plucky heroes of this safari!
Image Credit: John Gould,

*EDIT: This sentence is inaccurate and a mistake on my part! Procoptodon and its relatives, the Sthenurinae Kangaroos, are NOT thought to have hopped like modern Kangaroos do. Instead the currently accepted theory is that they walked on two legs (a bit like humans do). This idea was put forward by a study published in 2014 by Janis, Buttrill & Figueirido and backed up by a 2019 paper by Janis et. al. Links to both papers can be found below in the References/Further Reading section.

References/Further Reading

An article on the National Museum Australia’s website about the extinction of the Thylacine in 1936

National Museum Australia, “Extinction of the Thylacine”, National Museum Australia,,,the%20time%20of%20European%20settlement.

Rovinsky et. al. 2020. A paper that provides a new size estimate for the Thylacine

Rovinsky Douglass S., Evans Alistair R., Martin Damir G. and Adams Justin W. 2020Did the thylacine violate the costs of carnivory? Body mass and sexual dimorphism of an iconic Australian marsupialProc. R. Soc. B.28720201537,

An interesting web page from the Thylacine Museum section on the Natural Worlds website on Thylacine Reproduction and Development

Natural Worlds, “Biology: Reproduction and Development”,,

And another web page from the Thylacine Museum on Thylacine sounds.

Natural Worlds, “Vocalisation”,,

• A video by Ben G Thomas (uploaded coincidentally while I was writing this blog article) about the Marsupial Lion, Thylacoleo

An article written by Alice Klein for New Scientist on Thylacoleo

Klein, Alice, “Australia’s ‘marsupial lion’ was a meat-ripping, tree-climbing terror”, New Scientist,, 12th December, 2018,

An article on National Geographic by Laelaps (Riley Black) on the new size estimate of the giant monitor lizard Megalania.

Black, Riley, “Australia’s Giant, Venomous Lizard Gets Downsized”, National Geographic, March 19, 2014,,

Hocknull et. al. 2020: A study that provided evidence that the extinction of Australias megafauna (specifically in the Eastern Sahul region) was mainly due to a changing climate.

Hocknull, S.A., Lewis, R., Arnold, L.J. et al. Extinction of eastern Sahul megafauna coincides with sustained environmental deterioration. Nat Commun 11, 2250 (2020).

A 2017 article published on The Conversation, written by Gilbert Price, about Diprotodon and it’s seasonal migrations across Ice Age Australia

Price, Gilbert, “Giant marsupials once migrated across an Australian Ice Age landscape”, 27th September, 2017,,

The Australian Museums factfile on Procoptodon. Last updated in 2018 and written by Anne Musser

Musser, Anne, “Procoptodon goliah”, 4th December, 2018,,

Janis, Buttrill & Figueirido 2014 paper on Sthenurine (e.g. Procoptodon) locomation

Janis CM, Buttrill K, Figueirido B (2014) Locomotion in Extinct Giant Kangaroos: Were Sthenurines Hop-Less Monsters? PLoS ONE 9(10): e109888.

Janis et. al. 2019 paper that followed up the 2014 study on Sthenurine locomotion by examining the humerus bones of these extinct giant Kangaroos

Janis, C.M., Napoli, J.G., Billingham, C. et al. Proximal Humerus Morphology Indicates Divergent Patterns of Locomotion in Extinct Giant Kangaroos. J Mammal Evol 27, 627–647 (2020).

Prehistoric Wildlife’s factfile on Genyornis

Prehistoric Wildlife, “Genyornis”,,

The Woolly Mammoth: The great wonder of the Ice Age

File:Hunting Woolly Mammoth.jpg
Despite their size Woolly Mammoths were not invulnerable to attack from predators like these human species.
Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons,

“Alright, so what’s the next animal decided by the voters?”

[See’s that it’s the Woolly Mammoth].

“…..oh boy”.

Woolly Mammoths are HUGE. Not just in size but also with regards to public interest and our knowledge of these mammals. There are dozens upon dozens of scientific papers, journal articles, blog articles, TV documentaries and YouTube videos covering almost every aspect of mammoth biology, behaviour, extinction, evolutionary history and even whether they can be brought back from the dead (more on that later). As a result there is a lot to talk about! There’s so much that I can’t cover everything in just one blog article. So in this article we shall address one basic question; what exactly was a Woolly Mammoth? Furthermore I shall include some facts and stories about Woolly Mammoths that I’ve personally found awesome, interesting, inspiring and thought provoking.

Mammoths have a very long history of discovery, longer than almost any other prehistoric animal. Written records of mammoth fossil finds date back to the 17th century, with one find being recorded from Belgium in 1643. At that time palaeontology wasn’t a recognised field of study and the people who unearthed them thought that they had found the bones of mythical giants. Further remains were brought to the naturalist Sir Hans Sloane in 1728, who studied the remains and published his findings in the “Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society”. This means that Woolly Mammoths were the first prehistoric animals to be studied scientifically! The finds presented to Hans Sloane consisted of tusks and teeth. But they were enough to convince him that they belonged to a type of elephant. However why were elephant bones being found as far north and in as cold a climate as Siberia? It wouldn’t be until the late 18th century when it was deduced that these bones belonged to a new extinct elephant relative; a Mammoth. Some of the earliest Mammoth reconstructions from the 18th century were truly bizarre. One such reconstruction can only be described as a short, round pig with tusks coming out of its narrow snout! This is a far cry from the elephant-like reconstructions of today. Modern day reconstructions of Mammoth species, and the science surrounding them, are put together from evidence not only from fossil bones but also from one of the most exceptionally preserved remains possible in nature; frozen carcasses. These frozen bodies are the result of the poor Mammoths becoming trapped in thick mud. This mud fills the Mammoth’s mouth, nose and throat and combined with the fatigue from the trying to escape the Mammoth perishes. It is then buried under the thick mud and he combination of the cold temperatures (slowing down respiration of decaying bacteria) and the thick, oxygen deficient frozen mud slows down decomposition to a crawl. Therefore when the bodies are unearthed tens of thousands of years later they still have fur, skin, muscle tissue (which is so fresh that it is still edible!) and even internal organs. Some famous examples of frozen Mammoth carcasses include a 2013 specimen (of a 50-60 year old female) from the Stathsky Islands in Siberia that still had blood within it. Another example is a “Golden Mammoth”; a 22,000-50,000 year old “pygmy” Mammoth species (scientifically named “Mammuthus exilis”), only 2 metres tall, discovered in Kotelny Island in Siberia in 2018 that possesses golden strawberry blonde fur. A third example is the Jarkov Mammoth; a 20,000-18,000 year old bull male mammoth discovered in 1997 which is encased in a 23 tonne cube shaped block of ice, except for its tusks sticking out the front. This particular find gained significant internet fame as it is the basis for the “Mammoth Cube” meme. These frozen carcasses are spectacular and each one has its own story to tell regarding their discovery and the life of the Mammoth in question. These stories are so rich and detailed that I have only barely scratched the surface about them in this blog article!

Frozen Mammoth carcasses like this one (The 42,000 year old “Lyuba Mammoth”) are a fantastic way for palaeontologists to study these immense mammals!
Image Credit: James St John,

The basic body shape of a Woolly Mammoth (known scientifically as “Mammuthus primigenius”) is similar in a few key features with modern elephants, especially Asian Elephants who are the Mammoths closest living relatives. They are four legged herbivores with a domed head, slightly sloped back and a pair of specialised incisor teeth known as tusks. Furthermore they had a mostly grass based diet which they grinded down with a battery of thick, ridged molar teeth. Like elephants, Mammoths possessed a long, flexible trunk that was used for a number of different tasks; from grabbing and pulling vegetation (mainly grasses and flowering plants) towards their mouths, to sensing their environment through smell or touch, to sucking up water to drink and more. However Mammoths differed from elephants in a number of key ways. The most obvious of these was their thick, furry coats, which would grow even thicker and furrier in winter before shedding in summer. This feature was obviously beneficial in keeping them warm in the cold of Ice Age Europe, Asia and North America. Furthermore we know from the discovery of frozen mammoth bodies (and from fascinating cave art made by early humans!) that this coat came in a range of colours from dark brown, to light brown to reddish brown. But it wasn’t just the fur coat that kept them warm. Mammoths also possessed smaller ears and tails compared to modern elephants (to reduce heat loss) and a thick layer of fat that surrounded the entire animal and helped insulated it against the cold by trapping heat inside the animal. These features are typical of large animals living in very cold climates and can sometimes make these animals larger than their warm weather counterparts. This is true of Woolly Mammoths, with their average size coming in at 3-3.5 metres tall and weights of 5-6 tons, which is actually roughly around the same size as a large African Elephant. Woolly Mammoths were by no means the largest Mammoths around though. The Steppe Mammoth (a possible direct ancestor whose fossils have been discovered in the UK) lived up to about 750,000 years ago and could grow even bigger to around 4.5 metres tall and roughly 10.5-14 tonnes in weight. This means that when the Steppe Mammoth evolved into the Woolly Mammoth it actually shrunk to a smaller size! This is probably because of climate change resulting in less available vegetation to support the larger sizes.

Despite their size, weaponry and safety in numbers Woolly Mammoths were by no means impervious to attack. Cave Lions, Wolves, our close cousins the Neanderthals and our own ancestors would have definitely targeted a young or sick Mammoth that was struggling to keep pace with the herd. That being said even a weakened Woolly Mammoth would have been a tough nut to crack. It’s large size and massive tusks would have done considerable damage to these would be predators (even the co-operating, tool using human species). We know that both Neanderthals and Humans hunted Mammoths due to depictions in cave paintings, discoveries of Mammoth bones and tusks that have been altered, and even jewellery and huts made by humans from mammoth bones and tusks. These finds emphasize just how big a part Mammoths were in the lives of these humans, not only as food but also in a cultural and maybe even religious way. Even today Mammoths have marched their way into people’s imaginations through discoveries of their fossil remains and the subsequent reconstructions. Woolly Mammoths are particularly popular in pop culture for a prehistoric animal, being portrayed in numerous books, TV documentaries and even movies (looking at you “Ice Age” and “10,000 years BC”). With how popular they are, it is no wonder that people get excited by the potential of cloning Woolly Mammoths from DNA extracted from their frozen carcasses. This is theoretically possible due to the excellent preservation of the frozen mammoths. Hair from two specimens dating to 20,000-60,000 years old has preserved enough DNA to sequence half of the complete genome of a Woolly Mammoth. It’s perfectly understandable why people are excited, Imagine being able to see such an iconic animal brought back to life for everyone to see again! Even if the animal would only be a hybrid of a Mammoth and an Asian Elephant, made of half, or part of a Mammoth. I’m sure seeing a Woolly Mammoth again will give people the world over the same sense of awe and wonder that their distant ancestors must have felt when they saw Mammoths at their peak. But bringing back an extinct animal opens a whole can of worms when it comes to the ethics surrounding it. If scientists can bring Mammoths back from the dead like this, should it be for a more scientifically valid reason than just “because it would be cool”? Should the purpose instead be to learn more and confirm aspects about Mammoth biology, appearance and behaviour that is impossible with just fossils (e.g. specific herd behaviour, sounds etc.). Furthermore at the end of the day you’re bringing a large extinct mammal into the modern world where it may be difficult for it to live in. Is there a habitat in the world large enough and with the right conditions for a population of de-extinct Mammoths? Or would this small population spend all of their lives in zoos or safari parks across the world? Regardless of whether we can or will resurrect Woolly Mammoths, sequencing their genome has already told us much about their evolutionary history and life appearance. For example we know from their DNA that Mammoths are more closely related to Asian Elephants than to African Elephants and that Mammoths and Asian Elephants diverged away from each other around 5-4 million years ago. Furthermore, DNA evidence has told us that while Mammoths had a range of coat colours some were more prevalent than others, with the Dark Brown colouration being the most common. This is similar to how some human hair and eye colours are more common than others. What’s certain is that the more Mammoth DNA is sequenced, the more discoveries will be made!

An excellent painting of a small herd of Woolly Mammoths!
Image Credit: Kira Sokolovskaia,

Put all these aspects of biology and lifestyle together, and what you get is an incredibly successful herbivore. For roughly 400,000-450,000 years large Woolly Mammoth herds, consisting of mainly females, their young and led by a matriarch, would have been a common sight across Western Europe (including the UK, France and Spain), to Eastern Europe and Siberia, to Western North America. But sadly, no species lasts forever, and this was true of the Woolly Mammoths. The last surviving population, a pygmy subspecies living on Wrangel Island in Northern Siberia, became extinct as recently as 4,000 years ago. Humans have been blamed for the extinction of the Woolly Mammoths, with the theory being that extensive overhunting was too much for the dwindling Mammoth population to recover from. However while human hunting would have affected their numbers it is unlikely that humans were the sole, number one reason for their extinction. Instead it is believed that extensive climate change caused a reduction in the huge Mammoth steppe grassland that they relied on. This were replaced by forested environments, a habitat that was not as suitable for a large herbivore who was predominantly a grazer. As a result the Mammoth populations was in a steady decline leading up to their extinction, and genetic studies show that there was a reduction in genetic diversity up to the end of the last glacial period 10,000 years ago.

So there you have it. That is what a Woolly Mammoth was. A remarkably successful prehistoric animal that managed not only to adapt to, but to thrive in the freezing cold conditions of the Ice Age. They may be gone from this world (for now perhaps) but they have left a rich legacy through fossils and a deep mark in many people’s imaginations. There is no denying that Woolly Mammoths have cemented themselves as one of the most well-known and famous prehistoric animal of all time!

A Woolly Mammoth skeleton on display at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois, USA
Image Credit: Jonathan Chen,

References/Further Reading

•An article from the Washington post, written by Henry Nicholls, detailing the evolutionary history of the Woolly Mammoth

Nicholls, Henry, “Frozen remains help explain the life and eventual extinction of the woolly mammoth”, Washington Post,,

• An article written by David Robson for NewScientist detailing the sequencing of half of a Woolly Mammoth genome in 2008.

Robson, David, “Frozen hair gives up first mammoth genome”, NewScientist,,

• A video by the excellent Ben G Thomas YouTube channel that details 5 frozen carcasses. One of the carcasses covered is the Jarkov Mammoth (aka the “Mammoth Cube”) with the others consisting of frozen Cave Lions and the recently discovered frozen Cave Bear

• A fact file from the Prehistoric Wildlife page on Woolly Mammoth. Prehistoric Wildlife is a fantastic resource for information on prehistoric animals and I’ve used it as a resource for a lot of my blog articles.

Prehistoric Wildlife, “Mammuthus primigenius

(Woolly mammoth)”,,

• A Siberian Times article about the “Golden Mammoth”; a frozen pygmy Mammoth with golden/strawberry blonde fur

Siberian Times, “Scientists discover unique carcass of extinct ‘pygmy’ woolly mammoth on island off Siberian coast”,, 12th August, 2018,

• A National Geographic article, written by Tom Mueller in May 2009, about the “Ice Baby”, including history of its discovery and how it became preserved in the thick frozen mud.

Mueller, Tom, “Ice Baby”, National Geographic,, May, 2009,

“All hail the Great Beast Megatherium!”

File:Megatherium NT small.jpg - Wikimedia Commons
A reconstruction of the Great Beast
Image Credit: Nobu Tamura, (© N. Tamura),

“Deluded! Madman! Fake Scientist!”

The Cryptozoologist had been called these a lot throughout his professional career, (as well as other, more mean things). Time after time after time he had failed to discover any of the amazing creatures’ people claimed to have seen, with the majority being proven to never have existed in the first place. Now, nearing his retirement, he was wandering the amazon rainforest looking for yet another cryptid; the “Mapinguari”. “Just turn around” the voice in his head said (not for the first time). “They’re just stories made up to attract tourists or hoaxers trying to make a name for themselves or misidentified animals. None of them are real!”. The Cryptozoologist sighed, and for the first time in his life he wondered “Maybe I am a crazy old man”. Then he heard it, a crash of vegetation coming from the trees just to the left of him. He turned round, straining to locate exactly where the noise had come from. Then he saw it, and his jaw dropped. What he was seeing was an animal believed to have gone extinct 8,000 years ago. It was a great beast taller than an elephant and just as bulky, which possessed huge claws that it was currently using to pull down branches from a nearby tree towards its mouth. As he took out his camera and frantically took pictures two more large adults shuffled out of the forest, one of which had a baby clinging onto to its back. “They wouldn’t believe me” the Cryptozoologist thought. “But just wait till they see you!”

This “Great Beast” is known scientifically as Megatherium Americanum (meaning “Great Beast from the Americas”). Megatherium is an animal that palaeontologists have known about for a very long time. The first fossils were discovered in 1787, four decades before the first dinosaurs would be found, in Argentina by a man named Manuel Torres. After their discovery these bones were shipped to the Museo Nacional de Ciencias in Madrid, Spain, where they still reside today (another reason to visit Spain!). It was from these bones that French naturalist Georges Cuvier first described and named Megatherium, noting its close relation to modern day tree sloths. After these first fossils more were discovered, including bones found by Charles Darwin from 1832-1833 during the first Beagle expedition. Even nowadays new discoveries are revealing more insights. For example a paper published in 2017 (by Bocherens et. al.) looked at preserved collagen proteins in Megatherium fossils to give insights into its diet. Some people have gone a step further and claimed that Megatherium is still alive somewhere in South America. Stories from Brazil tell of the “Mapinguari” or “sloth monster”; a shaman who was transformed by the gods into a giant sloth-like creature. Cryptozoologists (like the one in the story) think the Mapinguari is actually a late surviving species of Megatherium, however scientists (and yours truly) don’t take these stories seriously due to absence of any concrete evidence.

A mounted skeleton of Megatherium with a awe inspired human for scale!
Image Credit: Beatrice Murch,

Megatherium belonged to a large order (or “superorder”) of mammals known as the xenarthans. Modern xenarthans include Tree Sloths, Anteaters & Armadillos, but during the Cenozoic era this group was much more diverse. From their origins in South America they ended up colonising North America, grew to a range of shapes and sizes and occupied a wide variety of habitats ranging from the treetops (e.g. modern tree sloths) to even the ocean (e.g. the swimming ground sloth Thalassocnus). Megatherium itself belonged to a sub-order of xenarthans commonly known as the “Giant Ground Sloths”. These sloths were very different from their slow moving and tree dwelling modern counterparts. They were bulky, ground living herbivores with large and sharp claws. While Megatherium itself was confined to South America other species of Giant Ground Sloths migrated across the Isthmus of Panama into Central and North America. This was during the great American interchange; a time where multiple species from South America migrated into North America (and vice-versa). As a result Giant Ground Sloths established populations in places such as Costa Rica, Texas and California.

Because multiple fossils of the “Great Beast” have been known to palaeontologists for some time we have a pretty good idea of what it would have been like. Megatherium roamed the South American pampas, mostly in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay, from the Pleistocene (roughly 400,000 years ago) to Early Holocene (roughly 8,000 years ago) periods of the Cenozoic era (a timespan commonly known as the “Ice Age”). This beast stood over 3.5 metres tall when fully upright and weighed up to 4 tonnes, making it the largest animal in South America during the Ice Age and the largest xenarthan ever. Its potbellied frame was supported by column-like hind legs that would have given it a long reach. Furthermore preserved Megatherium track-ways and its skeletal anatomy indicate that it could have walked on two legs as well as on all fours. Its front limbs were tipped with large, non-retractable claws which were used for pulling branches closer to them to eat and for digging up roots and tubers. In fact the claws were a reason that Megatherium was initially thought to have been a burrower, living like giant mole! Big claws would have undoubtedly been very effective defensive weapons with Megatherium using them, alongside its large size, to protect itself from predators, such as the large Sabre-Tooth Cat Smilodon populator. Other distinctive features include a relatively narrow snout, a prehensile upper lip (like a black rhino) and a thick shaggy coat. This coat is found on most Megatherium reconstructions and is based on the discovery of exceptionally preserved hair and hide specimens of related Giant Ground Sloths. However a study from 2002 (Fariña 2002) has speculated that Megatherium might’ve been nearly hairless! This is based on the observation that modern large mammals, such as elephants and rhinos, are mostly hairless to prevent them from overheating in hot climates (large animals produce a lot more excess heat). Megatherium may seem very different to what we would think of a typical large herbivore today. However the overall body plan of a large, bulky, bipedal herbivore with large claws has actually appeared a few times throughout earth’s history. One example is the Therizinosaur dinosaurs; a group which lived a full 65 million years earlier than Megatherium but is thought to have lived a similar lifestyle. This is an example of convergent evolution; where two completely unrelated organisms, often separated by millions of years of evolution, evolve similar body plans to live in similar ways. It’s a very fascinating phenomenon that has resulted in a lot of symmetry between modern and extinct animals (e.g. Dolphins and Ichthyosaurs).

A Megatherium looking at the horizon as two glyptodonts waddle by!
Image Credit: D. Bogdanov (DiBgd),

Such a majestic animal is another example how diverse the megafauna were during the last Ice Age. However the majority of these animals are not around anymore. Megatherium’s story is similar to other megafauna. Climate change at the end of the last Ice Age played a part, resulting in a loss of habitat and decline in population. This was combined with the arrival of modern humans into South America roughly 14,500 years ago. Some Megatherium bones bear distinct marks on them that indicate that they were cut by human tools. Furthermore other bones have been unearthed alongside human made stone tools and weapons. Tools, high intelligence and co-operation made humans a terrifying predator for a Megatherium to try and defend itself against and humans were so efficient that Megatherium numbers dwindled further. Eventually the dynasty of the Great Beast would come to a close 8,000 years ago. This unfortunate end makes one wish that the Cryptozoologists were right, and that Megatherium was somehow still living in South America to this day. If this were the case then I’m sure many more people would see what a “Great Beast” it really was.

References/Further Reading

Bocherens et. al. 2017 paper reconstructing the diet of Megatherium from analysis of collagen in the fossils

Bocherens et. al. (2017), Isotopic insight on paleodiet of extinct Pleistocene megafaunal Xenarthrans from Argentina. Gondwana Research, 2017; 48: 7 DOI: 10.1016/

Billet et. al. 1997 paper examining the inner ear anatomy of Megatherium and what it tells us about its body mass and agility

Billet, G et al. “The inner ear of Megatherium and the evolution of the vestibular system in sloths.” Journal of anatomy vol. 223,6 (2013): 557-67. doi:10.1111/joa.12114

Natural History Museum website article profiling Megatherium and detailing a project that was digitally scanning all the fossils Charles Darwin collected on the 1831-1836 Beagle voyage

Brewer, Pip, “What was Megatherium?”, Natural History Museum,

Fariña 2002 paper suggesting that the largest Giant Ground Sloths, such as Megatherium, were mostly hairless

Fariña, Richard. (2002). Megatherium, the hairless: appearance of the great Quaternary sloths (Mammalia;Xenarthra). AMEGHINIANA. 39. 241-244.

Politis et. al. 2019 paper, published in Sciences Advances, on the discovery of Megatherium remains that show evidence of Human Hunting

Politis, Gustavo & Messineo, Pablo & Stafford Jr, Thomas & Lindsey, Emily. (2019). Campo Laborde: A Late Pleistocene giant ground sloth kill and butchering site in the Pampas. Science Advances. 5. eaau4546. 10.1126/sciadv.aau4546.

“Take your stinking paws off me, you damned dirty Gigantopithecus!”

Gigantopithecus as it may have appeared in life
Image Credit: Concavenator,

If there is one creature that is frequently recycled in pop culture it is the giant ape. They recur over the decades because writers and directors can make them human enough that people can relate, but also fearsome enough to differentiate itself and be a scary threat. The most notorious example of this is King Kong, who first starred in a film in 1933 and has been reinvented on screen a staggering 3 times. He is one of the most famous large movie monsters of all time, tying only with Godzilla (whom Kong will battle on the silver screen in 2020). As well as seeing them in movies some people are convinced that large “ape-men” still exist in the wild. Sightings of animals such as Bigfoot and the Yeti, as well as “evidence” of hair and skin samples, have been reported for centuries. However the fossil record tells us that there were once indeed giant apes roaming the earth, as recently as 100,000 years ago!

The first fossils of this mysterious animal were discovered not during an excavation or stored in a museum, but in a market in Hong Kong. In 1935 A German palaeontologist named Ralph von Koenigswald was wandering through a Chinese market looking for weird curiosities such as “dragon bones”. Suddenly his eye was drawn to a molar tooth in one of the pharmacies. Von Koenigswald deduced that this tooth belonged to a species of primate, however this tooth was much bigger than any tooth belonging to a modern primate! Tracing the source of the tooth to a cave in Guangxi, South China, Von Koenigswald found more teeth and a jaw fragment. He named this giant ape Gigantopithecus blacki, (Greek for “Black’s giant ape”) after a colleague of his called Davidson Black. Since then surprisingly few further remains of Gigantopithecus have been found, with only a few more teeth and fragments of lower jaw collected from China, Vietnam and India. This could be due to the poor preservation potential of the areas that this animal lived in. This problem affects other prehistoric animals, and explains why we know some animals from very fragmented remains only. They have to be reconstructed based on what little we can infer from the remains, information from close relatives and more than a fair bit of educated guesswork!

A Cast of a Gigantopithecus lower jaw on display at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Jaws and teeth like these make up pretty much all of the known fossils of this giant ape.
Image Credit: James St. John,

However, despite the mysteriousness surrounding this animal, palaeontologists have been able to estimate that Gigantopithecus blacki stood 3 metres tall and weighed around half a ton; meaning that it would easily tower over a person and would have been the largest and most physically powerful primate that has ever lived. This size varied between genders, with males being much larger than females (this is known as “sexual dimorphism”). Like Orangutans Gigantopithecus is thought to have sported a long red/ginger coloured coat of hair, which together with its size would have made it a distinguishable sight in the tropical forests of South East Asia. At first glance this description may sound eerily similar to the popular depiction of “The Abominable Snowman”. However before anybody gets any ideas, Gigantopithecus would not explain the myth of the Yeti! For one thing it probably was not a bipedal walker, instead walking on its knuckles like a gorilla. Also its geographical range didn’t stretch to the Himalayas, where most yeti sightings have traditionally been located. That being said, it is plausible that fossil remains of Gigantopithecus collected over the centuries by locals may have been mistaken for remains of a Yeti. Despite its large size and ferocious canines, it is thought that Gigantopithecus would have had a diet consisting of fruit, leaves, roots and even bamboo, using its large molars to crunch through the plant matter. Its size would have given it protection against the main predators that inhabited the forests it lived in, such as tigers and alligators. The similarities to Orangutans isn’t just superficial however. A study published in November 2019 (by Welker et. al.) has shown that modern Orangutans and Gigantopithecus share a close common ancestor. By extracting and studying small fragments of protein from fossils of Gigantopithecus teeth the researchers showed that the two species split from a common ancestor around 10-12 million years ago. This was at a time when the great apes were undergoing an increase in diversity, evolving into the precursors of species alive today (including the early ape-like ancestors of humans).

A size comparison between Gigantopithecus blacki (left), the smaller Gigantopithecus giganteus (right) and an adult human (centre)
Image Credit: Discott,

Gigantopithecus evolved around 6 million years ago and was a highly successful species in its time. However despite its longevity it would eventually succumb to extinction, the last Gigantopithecus dying out 100,000 years ago. One reason for its extinction is thought to have been the loss of its tropical forest habitat due to global cooling. With the reduction of forest went the loss of it’s mainly fruit diet. As a result Gigantopithecus could not find enough food to support its huge size. However before it disappeared Gigantopithecus did manage to come into contact with our early human ancestors, in particular the early hominid Homo erectus, who had just spread into Asia at the time. Whether these early human ancestors would have hunted Gigantopithecus is a matter of debate, however a 3 metre tall bad tempered great ape would have certainly posed a massive threat to any human ancestor brave enough to take it on!

So Gigantopithecus managed to inspire awe in our early human ancestors, as giant apes do in ourselves today. To finish I’ll leave you with one more fun fact about this ape. The character of King Louie in the 2016 live action film “The Jungle Book” is a self-confessed Gigantopithecus!

References/Further Reading

Welker et. al. 2019 paper on Gigantopithecus ancestry

Welker, F., Ramos-Madrigal, J., Kuhlwilm, M. et al. Enamel proteome shows that Gigantopithecus was an early diverging pongine. Nature 576, 262–265 (2019).

Bocherens et. al. 2017 paper on how Gigantopithecus’ size may have contributed to its extinction

Bocherens, H., et al. (2017). “Flexibility of diet and habitat in Pleistocene South Asian mammals: Implications for the fate of the giant fossil ape Gigantopithecus.” Quaternary International 434: 148-155.

Another paper, Zhang & Harrison 2017, revisiting Gigantopithecus

Zhang, Y., Harrison, T., Gigantopithecus blacki: a giant ape from the Pleistocene of Asia revisited. American journal of physical anthropology, 162 Suppl 63, 153-177 (2017). doi: 10.1002/ajpa.23150.

Name: Elasmotherium, Codename: Siberian Unicorn

An artists impression of the Siberian Unicorn
Image Credit: DiBgd,

One evening a man and his wife are looking on the internet for a present for their daughter’s birthday. Their daughters has repeatedly (and loudly) stated that the only thing in the world she wants this year is a real unicorn. The doting father looks for the perfect unicorn toy and after hours of searching he finds one advertised as a “one of a kind Siberian Unicorn!” It is very expensive, however the parents assume that it’s a top of the range item, after all nothing is too much for “their princess!” The day arrives, a large lorry pulls into the driveway. “Here’s your Unicorn” the deliveryman states. The ramp moves down, revealing a strange and unexpected sight; a very large, very furry rhino, possessing one very long horn. The parents look on in shock and confusion; this was definitely not the toy they ordered! Their daughter on the other hand has quite the opposite reaction. “I love him!!” She shouts joyfully as she cuddles the creatures’ thick woolly neck. None of her friends have anything like this.

The “unicorn” in this story is named Elasmotherium (meaning “plated beast”). First described in 1808 by Johann von Waldheim, this animal was a big herbivore measuring 5 metres long, 2 metres tall and weighing up to 4 and a half tonnes in the largest species (Elasmotherium caucasicum). Elasmotherium was related to modern day rhinos and a close cousin to the more famous woolly rhino (Coelodonta antiquitatis) that it coexisted with. Like its cousin, Elasmotherium possessed a thick coat of fur to keep warm in the cold of the ice age. This fur traps a layer of heat around the body, giving a layer of effective insulation. In addition Elasmotherium had a thick layer of subcutaneous fat, similar to modern day polar animals. This fat, stored partly in the animals shoulder hump (like bison) would not only keep Elasmotherium warm but would also act as a store of energy for when food was less plentiful. The most striking feature of Elasmotherium of course is its large nasal horn, which could measure longer than a human is tall. It’s thought to have had multiple uses; clearing away snow in order for Elasmotherium to reach its main food source of grass; display against rivals; and defence against predators such as the cave lion. Despite its stocky appearance it is thought that Elasmotherium could run surprisingly fast, useful for charging anything it perceived as a threat.

A preserved molar tooth of Elasmotherium, which it used to grind up tough grasses found on the Ice Age steppe.
Image Credit: Ghedo,

Elasmotherium was a widely successful species. Living for around 2 million years its range stretched across Eurasia, from the Ukraine in the west to Siberia in the east. Originally Elasmotherium was thought to have gone extinct around 100,000 years ago. However a study published in 2018, using radiocarbon dating, showed that this animal lived more recently than previously thought, with the new extinction date now being only 39,000 years ago. Around this time modern humans had just reached Europe and Siberia so it is thought that humans could well have come into contact with Elasmotherium. Furthermore it is speculated that this magnificent animal is the original inspiration for the legend of the unicorn. Russian folk tales tell of a great one horned beast, with the body of a bull and head of a horse, known as the Indrik. It is plausible that these stories would’ve spread west into Europe from travellers through word of mouth, evolving over the generations into the story of a one horned horse. There is even a very slight possibility that the Siberian Unicorn could be brought back, or at least a rhino/Elasmotherium hybrid. This is because DNA has been extracted from younger Elasmotherium fossils. Unfortunately, as the DNA is too fragmented to be used for cloning, this is still in the realm of science fiction for now. However this DNA can still give us details on its evolutionary history, showing that Elasmotherium was the last survivor of a lineage that spilt from modern rhinos 43 million years ago.

An Elasmotherium skeleton on display at Azov History, Archaeology & Palaeontology Museum. Note the lack of a horn. This is due to horns not fossilizing. However we can estimate its length from measurements of the attachment point and comparison with other rhinos.
Image Credit: Altes,,Azov_Museum(1).jpg

So Elasmotherium was a spectacular example of the large megafauna that existed at the end of the last ice age. It also proves, if you believe the speculations, that there really were unicorns. They just were bigger, bulkier and more bad tempered than you might think!

UPDATE! (20/11/2021)

New research conducted by Titov, Baigusheva & Uchytel 2021 has shown that the head of Elasmotherium looked very different to what was once thought! From examination of more complete Elasmotherium skulls they have found that section of the skull beneath where the “horn” was was hollow, and would have supported an extended nasal cavity. This delicate structure was protected by a bony structure with a backwards facing top part. This structure was covered in keratin and gave it a horn that looked (at least to me) a bit like an iron. The extended cavity within would’ve given Elasmotherium an enhanced sense of smell, and it’s suggested that it might have enabled it to increase the volume and range of the sounds it made (calls, grunts etc.). Furthermore, this horn was sexually dimorphic (being larger in males than in females, and therefore probably having display and signalling functions) and still could’ve been used to clear away snowfall to reach succulent grasses that were located using smell!

In short, Elasmotherium didn’t have an almost 2 metre long spear on its head. But an iron shaped, all in one grass detector, snow plough, megaphone and advertising board!

References/Further Reading

Kosintsev et. al. 2019 paper on the evolutionary history and extinction of Elasmotherium

Kosintsev, P., Mitchell, K.J., Devièse, T. et al. Evolution and extinction of the giant rhinoceros Elasmotherium sibiricum sheds light on late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions. Nat Ecol Evol 3, 31–38 (2019).

A Natural History Museum article, written by Josh Davis, on new dating of Elasmotherium, that showed that it may have lived alongside Modern Humans

Davis, Josh, “The Siberian unicorn lived at the same time as modern humans”, Natural History Museum, Nov. 26, 2018,

A ThoughtCo article, written by Bob Strauss, giving information on Elasmotherium’s lifestyle, evolutionary history and links to the mythical unicorn.

Strauss, Bob. “Elasmotherium.” ThoughtCo, Feb. 11, 2020,

Smilodon: The Sabre-Tooth (not a) Tiger

Smilodon looking over his kingdom
Image Credit: Charles R Knight,

Right, I’m going to start off by clearing up a common misconception. Despite often being called it in popular media Smilodon was NOT a Sabre-Toothed Tiger, or related to tigers at all! It was a Sabre-Tooth Cat (or Machairodontinae if you want to get technical). Also, the term “Sabre-Tooth Cat” refers to the family that Smilodon is a part of rather than just Smilodon itself. Other examples of Sabre-Tooth Cats include; Dinofelis, which lived across Africa, Eurasia and North America during the Pliocene to the Early Pleistocene (5.5-1.5 million years ago) and has a reputation for being a hunter of Australopithecus and other early human ancestors (which it may or may not have done). Another example is Homotherium, a smaller Sabre-Tooth Cat species which lived around the same place and time as Smilodon.

With that out of the way, let’s find out more about this large and rather striking extinct kitty.

To start with, the first piece of anatomy that everyone notices when looking at Smilodon is its large sabres (which could measure up to 28cm long – almost as long as a school ruler!). Contrary to popular belief Sabre-Tooth Cats like Smilodon were not the first animals to evolve sabre teeth. That title instead goes to animals like the Gorgonopsids, a group of “mammal-like reptiles” that lived in the Late Permian period around 265-250 million years ago. They, and other “mammal-like reptiles” are a fascinating group of animals in their own right which I’m sure I’ll tackle in a later blog. While the sabres in Smilodon look very formidable they were actually surprisingly fragile, and could break easily if used for usual ripping and slashing attacks. Smilodon also had a relatively weak bite, and needed to open its mouth very wide in order to extend the sabres out fully. As a result it is thought that the sabres were used for careful, quick surgical bites to the prey’s neck in order to puncture the neck and ensure a quick end without too much struggle. The iconic positioning of these sabre-teeth is that they’re exposed on the outside. While this continues to be scientific consensus there have been suggestions that Smilodon and other sabre-tooth cats may have had fleshy lips covering them instead.

A reconstructed skeleton of Smilodon fatalis from the Sternberg Museum of Natural History in Hays, Kansas, USA. As you see the sabre-teeth are certainly eye-catching!
Image Credit: James St John,

There are other parts of Smilodons anatomy that also set it apart from modern day big cats. It was larger and more heavily built than a modern lion or tiger, measuring up to 1.5 metres long, a metre high and weighing up to 400 kilograms. Smilodon also possessed thick front leg bones with big muscle attachments. This suggests that Smilodon would not have been a pursuit hunter, but instead an ambush predator, stalking its prey, getting close and then leaping out and pinning them down using their powerful front legs, before then employing the sabres. In terms of behaviour it was a matter of debate as to whether Smilodon lived in prides (like lions) or were solitary like tigers, with reconstructions, paleoart and documentaries switching between the two. However some fossil Smilodon show previous serious injury and not only managed to recover but live to an old age. Also a joint study in 2008 by the Zoological Society of London and the University of California, assessed the large number of Smilodon remains found at Rancho La Brea Tar Pits who had turned up at the tar pits in response to prey distress calls. They compared these with the numbers of modern African predators that turned up to similar distress calls at similar traps. The results showed that the number of Smilodon found compared well to the numbers of pack hunting animals, such as lions and hyenas. Both of these observations indicate that these sabre-toothed cats lived in packs. (On a side note; Rancho La Brea is in my top 5 places to visit in the world!)

Smilodon fossils have been found across the Americas, having first evolved in North America before migrating to South America via the newly formed Isthmus of Panama land bridge. The first fossils, being of the South American species Smilodon populator, were discovered by Lund in Brazil in 1840. Further species discovered, all mostly based in North America, include; Smilodon fatalis (discovered by Leidy in 1869) and Smilodon gracilis (discovered in 1880 by the legendary Edward Drinker Cope of dinosaur fossil fame). Of these species Smilodon populator was both the youngest, evolving only 1 million years ago, and the largest.

A size comparison between 3 different Smilodon species and an average human. Smilodon populator of South America was the largest, followed by the North American Smilodon fatalis and Smilodon gracilis.
Image Credit: Aledgn,

Such a beautiful cat would be a sight to witness across the American plains. Sadly, like the rest of the megafauna that lived alongside them, they died out during the last Ice Age around 10,000 years ago. A few reasons have been suggested for this; competition with humans for prey being one of them. However it is likely that a changing climate, resulting in habitat reduction, and the loss of the large megafauna that Smilodon preyed on (which could have partly been a result of human hunting) were the main reasons. With large prey gone and with Smilodon not having the endurance to hunt the smaller, swifter mammal herbivores that remained, their numbers dwindled.

Still, Smilodon has gone down in history as one of the most striking extinct animals yet described. Its sabres have repeatedly captured the imagination of generations of people in museums and in popular media. Personally I’m sure of two things about Smilodon:

1. If I had to pick a fossil skull to own, it would be one of these sabre tooth cats, and

2. If one of them could speak it would have the voice of Denis Leary!

EDIT: A small addition to this blog. As well as being found in the USA Smilodon fatalis has also recently been discovered to live as far north as Canada, with the paper describing the new Canadian fossils (Reynolds, Seymour & Evans 2019) only published in January 2019.

References/Further Reading

Carbone et. al. 2008 paper on pack hunting behaviour in Smilodon

Carbone, Chris, Maddox, Tom, Funston, Paul J, et. al., (2008), Parallels between playbacks and Pleistocene tar seeps suggest sociality in an extinct sabretooth cat, Smilodon, Biol. Lett.5, 81–85,

An interesting blog by Mark Witton, published on his blog site, on exposed teeth in Paleontological reconstructions. Smilodon is one of the animals he talks about.

Witton, Mark, “Exposed teeth in dinosaurs, sabre-tooths and everything else: thoughts for artists”,, Oct. 9, 2016,

Christiansen & Harris 2005 paper, published in Journal of Morphology, on body size estimates of three Smilodon species

Christiansen, P. and Harris, J.M. (2005), Body size of Smilodon (Mammalia: Felidae). J. Morphol., 266: 369-384. doi:10.1002/jmor.10384

Reynolds, Seymour & Evans paper on the Canadian Smilodon fatalis fossils (For the EDIT).

Reynolds, A. R., et al. (2019). “Late Pleistocene records of felids from Medicine Hat, Alberta, including the first Canadian record of the sabre-toothed cat Smilodon fatalis.” Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 56(10): 1052-1060.